Poverty is concentrated in rural communities. According to recent World Bank figures, rural poverty represents over 50 percent of total poverty in half the countries in the Western Hemisphere, particularly in Guatemala (72 percent), El Salvador (67 percent). Costa Rica (59 percent), Paraguay (56 percent), Panama (55 percent), Honduras (54 percent), Nicaragua (53 percent), and Bolivia (51 percent). In the majority of countries, the total number of rural poor has increased since the 1970s. The lack of employment opportunities or access to productive resources in rural areas is a major push factor for out-migration to the United States or neighboring countries.